Bridging condensins mediate compaction of mitotic chromosomes

Giada Forte*, Lora Boteva, Filippo Conforto, Nick Gilbert, Peter R. Cook, Davide Marenduzzo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Eukaryotic chromosomes compact during mitosis into elongated cylinders—and not the spherical globules expected of selfattracting long flexible polymers. This process is mainly driven by condensin-like proteins. Here, we present Brownian-dynamic simulations involving two types of such proteins with different activities. One, which we refer to as looping condensins, anchors long-lived chromatin loops to create bottlebrush structures. The second, referred to as bridging condensins, forms multivalent bridges between distant parts of these loops. We show that binding of bridging condensins leads to the formation of shorter and stiffer mitotic-like cylinders without requiring any additional energy input. These cylinders have several features matching experimental observations. For instance, the axial condensin backbone breaks up into clusters as found by microscopy, and cylinder elasticity qualitatively matches that seen in chromosome pulling experiments. Additionally, simulating global condensin depletion or local faulty condensin loading gives phenotypes seen experimentally and points to a mechanistic basis for the structure of common fragile sites in mitotic chromosomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202209113
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Cell Biology
Volume223
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Nov 2023

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