Abstract / Description of output

Objective: To investigate GPT-3.5 in generating and coding medical documents with ICD-10 codes for data augmentation on low-resources labels.

Materials and Methods: Employing GPT-3.5 we generated and coded 9,606 discharge summaries based on lists of ICD-10 code descriptions of patients with infrequent (generation) codes within the MIMIC-IV dataset. Combined with the baseline training set, this formed an augmented training set. Neural coding models were trained on baseline and augmented data and evaluated on a MIMIC-IV test set. We report micro- and macro-F1 scores on the full codeset, generation codes, and their families. Weak Hierarchical Confusion Matrices were employed to determine within-family and outside-of-family coding errors in the latter codesets. The coding performance of GPT-3.5 was evaluated both on prompt-guided self-generated data and real MIMIC-IV data. Clinical professionals evaluated the clinical acceptability of the generated documents.

Results: Augmentation slightly hinders the overall performance of the models but improves performance for the generation candidate codes and their families, including one unseen in the baseline training data. Augmented models display lower out-of-family error rates. GPT-3.5 can identify ICD-10 codes by the prompted descriptions, but performs poorly on real data. Evaluators note the correctness of generated concepts while suffering in variety, supporting information, and narrative.

Discussion and Conclusion: GPT-3.5 alone is unsuitable for ICD-10 coding. Augmentation positively affects generation code families but mainly benefits codes with existing examples. Augmentation reduces out-of-family errors. Discharge summaries generated by GPT-3.5 state prompted concepts correctly but lack variety, and authenticity in narratives. They are unsuitable for clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the American Medical Informatics Association
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 17 May 2024

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • ICD coding
  • data augmentation
  • large language model
  • clinical text generation
  • evaluation by clinicians


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