Canine transitional cell carcinoma: a review of current paradigms

Juan Carlos Serra, Tracy Hill, Jessica Lawrence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common tumour of the canine urinary bladder.
It is highly locally invasive and carries a moderate to high risk of metastasis. Clinical signs are typically attributed to the primary disease, and may mimic those of a lower urinary tract infection. The gold standard for definitive diagnosis is histopathology of tissue obtained by traumatic catheterisation, cystoscopy or surgery. Staging includes thoracic and abdominal imaging to aid in the determination of prognosis. Due to the limitations of local treatment for TCC, medical treatment with systemic chemotherapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories remains the mainstay of therapy. Surgery is rarely feasible as the most
common location for TCC is the trigone. With the rapid development of interventional radiology in veterinary medicine during the last decade, urethral stents have become a non-invasive and effective approach for relieving partial or complete malignant urinary obstructions, which are common in dogs with advanced TCC.
Original languageEnglish
JournalUK-VET Companion animal
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jan 2016


  • Cancer
  • Transitional cell carcinoma
  • Chemotherapy
  • Urethral stent
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug


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