Capitalization interacts with syntactic complexity

Michael G. Cutter, Andrea E. Martin, Patrick Sturt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We investigated whether readers use the low-level cue of proper noun capitalization in the parafovea to infer syntactic category, and whether this results in an early update of the representation of a sentence's syntactic structure. Participants read sentences containing either a subject relative or object relative clause, in which the relative clause's overt argument was a proper noun (e.g., The tall lanky guard who alerted Charlie/Charlie alerted to the danger was young) across three experiments. In Experiment 1 these sentences were presented in normal sentence casing or entirely in upper case. In Experiment 2 participants received either valid or invalid parafoveal previews of the relative clause. In Experiment 3 participants viewed relative clauses in only normal conditions. We hypothesized that we would observe relative clause effects (i.e., inflated fixation times for object relative clauses) while readers were still fixated on the word who, if readers use capitalization to infer a parafoveal word's syntactic class. This would constitute a syntactic parafoveal-on-foveal effect. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this effect should be influenced by sentence casing in Experiment 1 (with no cue for syntactic category being available in upper case sentences) but not by parafoveal preview validity of the target words. We observed syntactic parafoveal-on-foveal effects in Experiment 1 and 3, and a Bayesian analysis of the combined data from all three experiments. These effects seemed to be influenced more by noun capitalization than lexical processing. We discuss our findings in relation to models of eye movement control and sentence processing theories.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1146-1164
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Volume46
Issue number6
Early online date17 Oct 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Oct 2019

Keywords

  • eye movements - reading
  • parafoveal processing
  • parafoveal-on-foveal effects
  • relative clause processing

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