BACKGROUND: Diabetes confers an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but less is known about the independent risk diabetes confers on major cardiovascular and limb events in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) on contemporary management.
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the risk of cardiovascular and limb events in patients with PAD and diabetes as compared with those with PAD alone.
METHODS: In the EUCLID (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in Peripheral Artery Disease) trial, 13,885 patients with symptomatic PAD were evaluated with a primary endpoint of an adjudicated composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke) followed over a median of ∼30 months. The diabetes subgroup was analyzed compared with the subgroup without diabetes, and further examined for diabetes-specific factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) that might affect risk for major cardiovascular and limb outcomes.
RESULTS: A total of 5,345 patients (38.5%) had diabetes; the majority (n = 5,134 [96.1%]) had type 2 diabetes. The primary endpoint occurred in 15.9% of patients with PAD and diabetes as compared with 10.4% of those without diabetes (absolute risk difference 5.5%; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41 to 1.72; p < 0.001). Every 1% increase in HbA1c was associated with a 14.2% increased relative risk for MACE (95% CI: 1.09 to 1.20; p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PAD and diabetes are at high risk for cardiovascular and limb ischemic events, even on contemporary therapies. Every 1% increase in HbA1c was associated with a 14.2% increased relative risk for MACE (95% CI: 1.09 to 1.20; p < 0.0001). (A Study Comparing Cardiovascular Effects of Ticagrelor and Clopidogrel in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease [EUCLID]; NCT01732822).