OBJECTIVE: To determine whether CT-based cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) biomarkers are associated with 6-month functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and whether these biomarkers improve the performance of pre-existing ICH score.
METHODS: We included 864 patients with acute ICH from a multicentre, hospital-based prospective cohort study. We evaluated CT-based SVD biomarkers (white matter hypodensities [WMH]; lacunes; brain atrophy; and a composite SVD burden score) and their associations with poor 6-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score >2). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow test were used to assess discrimination and calibration of the ICH score with and without SVD biomarkers.
RESULTS: In multivariable models (adjusted for ICH score components), WMH presence (OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.12-2.06), cortical atrophy presence (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.19-2.73), deep atrophy presence (OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.17-2.34), and severe atrophy (either deep or cortical) (OR 1.94, 95%CI 1.36-2.74) were independently associated with poor functional outcome. For the ICH score, the AUROC was 0.71 (95%CI 0.68-0.74). Adding SVD markers did not significantly improve ICH score discrimination; for the best model (adding severe atrophy) the AUROC was 0.73 (95%CI 0.69-0.76). These results were confirmed when considering lobar and non-lobar ICH, separately.
CONCLUSIONS: The ICH score has acceptable discrimination for predicting 6-month functional outcome after ICH. CT biomarkers of SVD are associated with functional outcome but adding them does not significantly improve ICH score discrimination.