Three-dimensional (3D) printing is revolutionizing the manufacturing process of the 21st century. However, the commonly used 3D printing technology has its limitations in their resolution, as well as in their fabrication speed. This chapter introduces the 3D/4D electrospinning technique, which offers solutions to these limitations. With the 3D/4D electrospinning technology, it is possible to assemble macroscopic 3D shapes with internal polymer/composite micro- and nanofibers. Within 10 min, a structure height of 3–4 cm can be achieved and still self-standing after 1 year of storage at ambient conditions. The chapter starts by explanation background of electrospinning and methods to fabricate 3D polymer micro- and nanostructures. Then, it presents its principles and the details of the 3D/4D electrospinning technology, apparatus, process, characterization, and parameters. The potential applications and the future of 3D and 4D electrospinning are explained at the end, particularly for biomedical and energy applications.
- 3d printing
- 4d printing