Characterising and comparing drug-dispensing practices at animal health outlets in the Rift Valley, Kenya: an exploratory analysis (part II)

L. E. Higham, W. Ongeri, K. Asena, M. V. Thrusfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

A mixed-method study was conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya to characterise drug-dispensing practices amongst staff at animal health outlets and to explore perceptions of veterinary medicines amongst pastoralists and farmers. Forty structured questionnaires were administered to staff at animal health outlets, including franchise outlets of ‘Sidai Africa Ltd.’, and two focus group discussions were facilitated to explore the perceptions of local animal health services by a Maasai pastoralist group and a dairy farmer cooperative. Differences were detected in the characteristics of Sidai outlets, agrovets, pharmacies and dukas. A greater proportion of Sidai outlet staff selected drugs based on principles of responsible drug use than staff at other types of out- let, and technical qualifications and training were associated with responsible drug use. Across all outlet types, staff knowledge and training gaps were identified, including in the correct administration of medicines. The majority of drug sales are accompanied by verbal advice to farmers. Members of the Maasai pastoralist group were concerned about accidental self-medication, withdrawal periods, drug residues and the misuse of drugs due to a lack of quality information and advice. The dairy farmer group raised similar concerns, reporting under-dosing as a common mistake amongst farmers. This study concludes that current knowledge, attitudes and practices of many service providers and livestock owners in the sale, purchase and use of veterinary medicines present risks of drug misuse and therefore the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. There is a clear demand from live- stock keepers for accessible, affordable and quality animal health services and products in Kenya, and animal health practitioners have the potential to provide increased support to livestock-based livelihoods and act as stewards of our existing portfolio of animal and human medicines.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1633–1643
Number of pages10
JournalTropical Animal Health and Production
Early online date31 Aug 2016
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 31 Aug 2016

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Livestock
  • Health
  • Veterinary medicine
  • Drug-dispensing practices
  • Pastoralist
  • Drug resistance


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