Characterization of the planetary system Kepler-101 with HARPS-N. A hot super-Neptune with an Earth-sized low-mass companion

A. S. Bonomo, A. Sozzetti, C. Lovis, L. Malavolta, K. Rice, L. A. Buchhave, D. Sasselov, A. C. Cameron, D. W. Latham, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, S. Udry, L. Affer, D. Charbonneau, R. Cosentino, C. D. Dressing, X. Dumusque, P. Figueira, A. F. M. Fiorenzano, S. GettelA. Harutyunyan, R. D. Haywood, K. Horne, M. Lopez-Morales, M. Mayor, G. Micela, F. Motalebi, V. Nascimbeni, D. F. Phillips, G. Piotto, D. Pollacco, D. Queloz, D. Ségransan, A. Szentgyorgyi, C. Watson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We characterize the planetary system Kepler-101 by performing a combined differential evolution Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of Kepler data and forty radial velocities obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph. This system was previously validated and is composed of a hot super-Neptune, Kepler-101b, and an Earth-sized planet, Kepler-101c. These two planets orbit the slightly evolved and metal-rich G-type star in 3.49 and 6.03 days, respectively. With mass Mp = 51.1-4.7+ 5.1 M⊕, radius Rp = 5.77-0.79+ 0.85 R⊕, and density ρp = 1.45-0.48+ 0.83 g cm-3, Kepler-101b is the first fully characterized super-Neptune, and its density suggests that heavy elements make up a significant fraction of its interior; more than 60% of its total mass. Kepler-101c has a radius of 1.25-0.17+ 0.19 R⊕, which implies the absence of any H/He envelope, but its mass could not be determined because of the relative faintness of the parent star for highly precise radial-velocity measurements (Kp = 13.8) and the limited number of radial velocities. The 1σ upper limit, Mp<3.8 M⊕, excludes a pure iron composition with a probability of 68.3%. The architecture of the planetary system Kepler-101 - containing a close-in giant planet and an outer Earth-sized planet with a period ratio slightly larger than the 3:2 resonance - is certainly of interest for scenarios of planet formation and evolution. This system does not follow thepreviously reported trend that the larger planet has the longer period in the majority of Kepler systems of planet pairs with at least one Neptune-sized or larger planet. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.Table 2 is available in electronic form at
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014


  • planetary systems
  • stars: fundamental parameters
  • techniques: photometric
  • techniques: radial velocities
  • techniques: spectroscopic


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