Characterizing concrete surface notch using Rayleigh wave phase velocity and wavelet parametric analyses

Foo Wei Lee (Lead Author), Hwa Kian Chai, Kok Sing Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A multichannel Rayleigh wave (R-wave) measurement technique is proposed for evaluating concrete surface notches with different orientations. In this study, numerical simulations were first conducted to examine the propagation of R-waves in steel-reinforced concrete comprising of surface notch inclining at 30°, 90° and 150° against the horizontal plane. The change of R-wave amplitude was obtained through analysis by wavelet transform (WT) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) for determining theirs correlations with the notch depth-to-wavelength ratio. Experimental measurements on concrete samples were then carried out to validate the proposed technique and its performance, particularly for cases where notch depth is greater than R-wave wavelength. Good agreement was found between the experimental results and the numerical calculations, offering good possibility for using R-waves to assess vertical and inclined surface notches in reinforced concrete with the proposed technique for R-waves acquisition and analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)627-642
Number of pages16
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Early online date9 Sep 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017


  • reinforced-concrete
  • Surface notch
  • Rayleigh wave
  • Wavelet transform
  • Phase velocity
  • Notch depth and inclination


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