Classification of Alzheimer’s disease from quadratic sample entropy of electroencephalogram

Samantha Simons, Daniel Abasolo, Javier Escudero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Currently accepted input parameter limitations in entropy-based, non-linear signal processing methods, for example, sample entropy (SampEn), may limit the information gathered from tested biological signals. The ability of quadratic sample entropy (QSE) to identify changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of 11 patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 11 age-matched, healthy controls is investigated. QSE measures signal regularity, where reduced QSE values indicate greater regularity. The presented method allows a greater range of QSE input parameters to produce reliable results than SampEn. QSE was lower in AD patients compared with controls with significant differences (p < 0.01) for different parameter combinations at electrodes P3, P4, O1 and O2. Subject- and epoch-based classifications were tested with leave-one-out linear discriminant analysis. The maximum diagnostic accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 77.27 and more than 80%, respectively, at many parameter and electrode combinations. Furthermore, QSE results across all r values were consistent, suggesting QSE is robust for a wider range of input parameters than SampEn. The best results were obtained with input parameters outside the acceptable range for SampEn, and can identify EEG changes between AD patients and controls. However, caution should be applied because of the small sample size.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-73
Number of pages4
JournalHealth Technology Letters
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015


Dive into the research topics of 'Classification of Alzheimer’s disease from quadratic sample entropy of electroencephalogram'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this