Methodology: Pre-school age children (1-5years) who were lifelong residents of the study area and had no other infections were included in the study. Participants underwent a physical examination with clinicians blinded from their infection status. Diagnosis of Schistosoma. haematobium was by urine filtration.
Results: The prevalence of Schistosoma. haematobium was 35.1%(146/416). The clinical features observed in patients with Schistosoma. haematobium were: wheezes (morbidity attributable factor (AF=93.9%), haematuria (AF=92.6%), ascites (AF=91.5%), atopy (AF=76.9%), inguinal lymphadenopathy(AF=68.4%), stunting (AF=38.2) , malnutrition (MUAC)(AF=20%) and weight for height scales (AF=5%). Schistosoma. haematobium infected children were at greater odds ratio of presenting with inguinal lymphadenopathy (AOR)=99.2(95% CI 24.2 to 854.5), wheezes in the chest (AOR=35.4 95% CI 15.3 to 94.2), Distended abdomen with ascites (AOR=23.9 95% CI 11.4 to 54), haematuria (AOR=12.6 95% CI 11.6 to 14.1), atopy history (AOR=5.6 95% CI 1.85 to 20.2), malnutrition (AOR=2.3 95% CI 1.4 to 3.2) and stunting (AOR= 1.9 95% CI 1.1 to2.7).
Conclusion: The study is novel as it demonstrates for the first time clinical morbidity markers associated with Schistosoma. haematobium infection in pre-school age children. Furthermore the study adds scientific evidence to the call for inclusion of pre-school age children in schistosomiasis control programs. These morbidity markers highlight the need for early diagnosis and screening for S. haematobium in preschool age children.
- urogenital schistosomiasis
- pre-school aged children
- schistosoma haematobium