Methods A total of 103 MRSP isolates from dogs isolated from several countries in Europe, the USA and Canada were characterized. Isolates were identified by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth dilution or gradient diffusion, and antimicrobial resistance genes were detected using a microarray. Genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), PFGE and spa typing. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements were characterized by multiplex PCR.
Results Thirteen different sequence types (STs), 18 PFGE types and 8 spa types were detected. The hybrid SCCmec element II–III described in a MRSP isolate was present in 75 (72.8%) isolates. The remaining isolates either had SCCmec type III (n = 2), IV (n = 6), V (n = 14) or VII-241 (n = 4) or were non-typeable (n = 2). The most common genotypes were ST71(MLST)-J(PFGE)-t02(spa)-II–III(SCCmec) (56.3%) and ST68-C-t06-V (12.6%). In addition to mecA-mediated β-lactam resistance, isolates showed resistance to trimethoprim [dfr(G)] (90.3%), gentamicin/kanamycin [aac(6′)-Ie–aph(2′)-Ia] (88.3%), kanamycin [aph(3′)-III] (90.3%), streptomycin [ant(6′)-Ia] (90.3%), streptothricin (sat4) (90.3%), macrolides and/or lincosamides [erm(B), lnu(A)] (89.3%), fluoroquinolones (87.4%), tetracycline [tet(M) and/or tet(K)] (69.9%), chloramphenicol (catpC221) (57.3%) and rifampicin (1.9%).
Conclusions Two major clonal MRSP lineages have disseminated in Europe (ST71-J-t02-II–III) and North America (ST68-C-t06-V). Regardless of their geographical or clonal origin, the isolates displayed resistance to the major classes of antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and thus infections caused by MRSP isolates represent a serious therapeutic challenge.
- antimicrobial resistance