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We studied personality, subjective well-being, and hair cortisol level, in common marmosets Callithrix jacchus, a small, cooperatively breeding New World monkey, by examining their associations with one another and genotypes. Subjects were 68 males and 9 females that lived in the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies. Personality and subjective well-being were assessed by keeper ratings on two questionnaires, hair samples were obtained to assay cortisol level and buccal swabs were used to assess AVPR1a, OPRM1 and DAT genotypes. Three personality domains---Dominance, Sociability, and Neuroticism---were identified. Consistent with findings in other species, Sociability and Neuroticism were related to higher and lower subjective well-being, respectively. Sociability was also associated with higher hair cortisol levels. The personality domains and hair cortisol levels were heritable and associated with genotypes: the short form of AVPR1a was associated with lower Neuroticism and the AA genotype of the A111T SNP of OPRM1 was related to lower Dominance, lower Neuroticism, and higher hair cortisol level. Some genetic associations were not in directions that one would expect given findings in other species. These findings provide insights into the proximate and ultimate bases of personality in common marmosets, other primates and humans.
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