Comorbidities and systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Gourab Choudhury, Roberto Rabinovich, William MacNee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although primarily a lung disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now recognized to have extrapulmonary effects on distal organs, the so-called systemic effects and comorbidities of COPD. Skeletal muscle dysfunction, nutritional abnormalities including weight loss, cardiovascular complications, metabolic complications, and osteoporosis, among others, are all well-recognized associations in COPD. These extrapulmonary effects add to the burden of mortality and morbidity in COPD and therefore should be actively looked for, assessed, and treated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-30
Number of pages30
JournalClinics in chest medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014


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