Compact storage of superblocks for NIPoPoW applications

Kostis Karantias, Aggelos Kiayias, Dionysis Zindros*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract / Description of output

Blocks in proof-of-work (PoW) blockchains satisfy the PoW equation H(B) ≤ T. If additionally a block satisfies H(B) ≤ T 2−μ, it is called a μ-superblock. Superblocks play an important role in the construction of compact
blockchain proofs which allows the compression of PoW blockchains into so-called Non-Interactive Proofs of Proof-of-Work (NIPoPoWs). These certificates are essential for the construction of superlight clients, which are blockchain wallets that
can synchronize exponentially faster than traditional SPV clients. In this work, we measure the distribution of superblocks in the Bitcoin blockchain. We find that the superblock distribution within the blockchain follows expectation, hence we empirically verify that the distribution of superblocks within the Bitcoin blockchain has not been adversarially biased. NIPoPoWs require that each block in a blockchain points to a sample of previous blocks in the blockchain. These pointers form a data structure called the interlink. We give efficient ways to store the interlink data structure. Repeated superblock references within an interlink can be omitted with no harm to security. Hence, it is more efficient to store a set of superblocks rather than a list. We show that, in honest executions, this simple observation reduces the number of
superblock references by approximately a half in expectation. We then verify our theoretical result by measuring the improvement over existing blockchains in terms of the interlink sizes (which we improve by 79%) and the sizes of succinct NIPoPoWs
(which we improve by 25%). As such, we show that deduplication allows superlight clients to synchronize 25% faster.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMathematical Research for Blockchain Economy
Subtitle of host publication1st International Conference MARBLE 2019
EditorsPanos Pardalos, Ilias Kotsireas, Yike Guo, William Knottenbelt
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9783030371104
ISBN (Print)9783030371098
Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2020
Event1st International Conference on Mathematical Research for Blockchain Economy - Santorini, Greece
Duration: 6 May 20199 May 2019

Publication series

NameSpringer Proceedings in Business and Economics
ISSN (Print)2198-7246
ISSN (Electronic)2198-7254


Conference1st International Conference on Mathematical Research for Blockchain Economy
Abbreviated titleMARBLE 2019

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • blockchain
  • superblock
  • NIPoPoW


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