COMPARISON OF CAPTOPRIL, HYDRALAZINE AND NIFEDIPINE AS 3RD DRUG IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

EG BEVAN, SD PRINGLE, PC WALLER, AL HERRICK, JG FINDLAY, GD MURRAY, HA CARMICHAEL, JL REID, RJ WEIR, AR LORIMER, GT MCINNES

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The antihypertensive, biochemical and adverse effects of captopril, hydralazine, nifedipine and placebo were compared in 160 patients with BP inadequately controlled by atenolol 100 mg daily plus bendrofluazide 5 mg daily. Treatments were given for up to 12 weeks. Beta-blocker and thiazide were continued unchanged.

All three active drugs reduced supine BP relative to placebo; mean BP changes attributable to active treatment (95% confidence intervals): captopril 13.4/10.3 mmHg (0.6/4.0 to 26.2/16.6), hydralazine 15.0/10.0 mmHg (1.7/3.4 to 28.3/16.6), nifedipine 16.8/8.1 mmHg (4.0/1.8 to 29.6/14.4). There were no significant differences between the agents. Results for erect BP were similar. Target BP (<140/95 mmHg) was achieved more frequently on captopril (33%), hydralazine (29%) and nifedipine (17%) than on placebo (10%). Compared with the other treatments captopril increased serum potassium concentration (P = 0.01), and hydralazine reduced serum cholesterol concentration (median changes: captopril -0.2 mmol/l, hydralazine -0.8 mmol/l, nifedipine -0.2 mmol/l, and placebo +0.2 mmol/l, P <0.001). Overall, side-effects did not differ significantly between the groups; withdrawals resulting from adverse reactions: captopril 15%, hydralazine 24%, nifedipine 22%, and placebo 3% (chi2 = 8.2, P = 0.04).

Captopril, hydralazine and nifedipine did not differ significantly in efficacy and tolerability when added to atenolol and bendrofluazide. However, there were trends in favour of captopril, on which drug the highest proportion of patients had their BP controlled and the lowest proportion were withdrawn because of side-effects. Thus, of the drugs tested, captopril appears to be the best option as third drug in hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-88
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Human Hypertension
Volume7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1993

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