Abstract / Description of output
BACKGROUND: Accurate surveillance of livestock antibiotic usage (ABU) at the farm level is an increasingly important part of national antibiotic stewardship initiatives. Numerous ABU indicators or metrics have been developed in Europe and North America but the comparability of these metrics is poorly understood. For policymakers, understanding the relationship between metrics is important when considering the risks posed by ABU and how to regulate them, at the national level, and regulate international trade access in livestock products between countries who use different ABU metrics.
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the patterns of ABU among beef (cattle) and lamb (sheep) production systems. To explore ABU variation between farm types across seven ABU metrics developed in Europe and North America using a common dataset of sheep and beef farms' antibiotic purchases from the UK.
METHODS: A dataset of >16 200 antibiotic sales events to 686 farm enterprises of different types underwent quantitative analysis. Correlation matrixes were generated for seven international ABU metrics.
RESULTS: ABU was significantly higher among calf-rearers. Across all farm types, tetracyclines and β-lactams were the predominant groups by mass, but represent a similar dose equivalent to macrolides across most farm types. Good agreement (>0.9) was observed between metrics.
CONCLUSIONS: Reliable metrics to accurately benchmark farms are crucial for maintaining confidence of farmers in the fairness of any surveillance system, especially when the ranking of any given system may be linked to financial subsidies or penalties and also when negotiating import and export access for livestock products between countries.
Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)
- Antibiotic usage
- antibiotic i
- beef cattle