Chimpanzees in west central Africa ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes) are known to harbor simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpzPtt) that represent the closest relatives of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); however, the number of SIVcpzPtt strains that have been fully characterized is still limited. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of SIVcpzGAB2, a virus originally identified in 1989 in a chimpanzee ( P. t. troglodytes) from Gabon. Analysis of this sequence reveals that SIVcpzGAB2 is a member of the SIVcpzPtt group of viruses, but that it differs from other SIVcpzPtt strains by exhibiting a highly divergent Env V3 loop with an unusual crown (NLSPGTT) containing a canonical N-linked glycosylation site, an unpaired cysteine residue in Env V4, and two late (L) domain motifs (PTAP and YPSL) in Gag p6. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses indicate evidence of recombination during the early divergence of SIVcpzPtt strains; in particular, part of the pol gene sequence of SIVcpzGAB2 appears to be derived from a previously unidentified SIVcpz lineage ancestral to HIV-1 group O. These data indicate extensive diversity among naturally occurring SIVcpzPtt strains and provide new insight into the origin of HIV-1 group O.