Contact Tank Design Impact on Process Performance

Athanasios Angeloudis, Thorsten Stoesser*, Carlo Gualtieri, Roger A. Falconer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

In this study three-dimensional numerical models were refined to predict reactive processes in disinfection contact tanks (CTs). The methodology departs from the traditional performance assessment of contact tanks via hydraulic efficiency indicators, as it simulates directly transport and decay of the disinfectant, inactivation of pathogens and accumulation of by-products. The method is applied to study the effects of inlet and compartment design on contact tank performance, with special emphasis on turbulent mixing and minimisation of internal recirculation and short-circuiting. In contrast to the conventional approach of maximising the length-to-width ratio, the proposed design changes are aimed at addressing and mitigating adverse hydrodynamic structures, which have historically led to poor hydraulic efficiency in many existing contact tanks. The results suggest that water treatment facilities can benefit from in-depth analyses of the flow and kinetic processes through computational fluid dynamics, resulting in up to 38 % more efficient pathogen inactivation and 14 % less disinfection by-product formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)563-576
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironmental Modeling and Assessment
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Chlorine contact tanks
  • Numerical simulation
  • Reactor hydrodynamics
  • Residence time distribution
  • Water disinfection


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