Content, Social, and Metacognitive Statements: An Empirical Study Comparing Human-Human and Human-Computer Tutorial Dialogue

Myroslava O. Dzikovska, Natalie B. Steinhauser, Johanna D. Moore, Gwendolyn E. Campbell, Katherine M. Harrison, Leanne S. Taylor

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


We present a study which compares human-human computer-mediated tutoring with two computer tutoring systems based on the same materials but differing in the type of feedback they provide. Our results show that there are significant differences in interaction style between human-human and human-computer tutoring, as well as between the two computer tutors, and that different dialogue characteristics predict learning gain in different conditions. We show that there are significant differences in the non-content statements that students make to human and computer tutors, but also to different types of computer tutors. These differences also affect which factors are correlated with learning gain and user satisfaction. We argue that ITS designers should pay particular attention to strategies for dealing with negative social and metacognitive statements, and also conduct further research on how interaction style affects human-computer tutoring.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice
Subtitle of host publication5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2010, Barcelona, Spain, September 28 - October 1, 2010, Proceedings
EditorsM Wolpers, PA Kirschner, M Scheffel, S Lindstaedt, V Dimitrova
PublisherSpringer-Verlag GmbH
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)978-3-642-16019-6
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Event5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning - Barcelona
Duration: 28 Sep 20101 Oct 2010

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
PublisherSpringer Berlin / Heidelberg
ISSN (Print)0302-9743


Conference5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning

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