Content vs. Process in the HRM-performance relationship: An empirical examination

Anastasia Katou, Pawan Budhwar, Charmi Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates the impact of a human resource management (HRM)
system, which integrates both content and process of human resource (HR)
practices, on organizational performance, through collective employee reactions.
The analysis is based on a sample of 1,250 Greek employees working
in 133 public- and private-sector organizations, which operate in the present
context of severe financial and economic crises. The findings of the structural
equation modeling suggest that content and process are two inseparable
faces of an HRM system that help to reveal a comprehensive picture of the
HRM–organizational performance relationship. Based on the findings that
collective employee reactions mediate the HRM content (i.e., organizational
performance relationship) and HRM process moderates the HRM content
(i.e., employee reactions relationship), the study has several theoretical and
practice implications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-544
JournalHuman Resource Management
Issue number4
Early online date19 Jun 2014
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014


  • HRM content and process
  • collective employee reactions
  • organizational performace
  • financial and economic crisis
  • Greece


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