A credible, reversible male contraceptive with sufficient efficacy and convenience to rival established female methods has been eagerly awaited for some years. What are the issues surrounding its development and when is a launch likely? At present, many different approaches and targets have been identified for further development. These include spermatogenesis, unique testicular proteins, immunocontraception, the vas deferens and the potential method currently closest to fruition, hormonal contraception. This is now in Phase III studies in China and commercial studies are underway in Europe.