OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate combined time-resolved and high-spatial resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) for assessment of cavopulmonary connections in adult patients with congenital heart disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight adults with various surgical cavopulmonary connections (Glenn shunt and Fontan connection) underwent high-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA (voxel size, 1.95 mm(3); temporal resolution, 22 seconds) and time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA (voxel size, 6.5-9.3 mm(3); temporal resolution, < 1.2 seconds). Ten patients had 2D phase contrast flow quantification measurements performed at the same setting. Two readers independently assessed anatomic dimensions of cavopulmonary connections (using high-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA) and pulmonary artery (PA) perfusion patterns (using time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA).
RESULTS: High-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA yielded diagnostic-quality images for morphologic assessment of cavopulmonary connections in 27 of 28 (96%) patients. The anatomic dimensions (cross-sectional area) of the PA and cavopulmonary connections showed a wide variation (right PA, 0.99-5.67 cm(2); left PA, 0.80-5.69 cm(2); Glenn shunt, 0.93-6.94 cm(2); and Fontan connection, 1.25-6.67 cm(2)). The anatomic dimensions could be assessed with excellent interobserver agreement on high-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA (r = 0.895). Time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA yielded diagnostic-quality images in all patients and enabled characterization of PA perfusion via the superior vena cava as follows: preferential inflow to the right PA (n = 12), preferential inflow to the left PA (n = 5), and balanced inflow to the right and left PA (n = 11). In those patients who had technically successful flow quantification measurements, phase contrast data confirmed patency of the cavopulmonary connections.
CONCLUSION: Combined time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA and high-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA allowed detailed morphologic and dynamic evaluation of cavopulmonary connections in adult patients with congenital heart disease. A wide variation in anatomic dimensions and perfusion patterns was confidently identified in this patient population.
- Blood Flow Velocity
- Cardiac Surgical Procedures
- Contrast Media
- Fontan Procedure
- Heart Defects, Congenital
- Magnetic Resonance Angiography
- Treatment Outcome