Abstract / Description of output
The benzimidazoles are one of the most important broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug classes for parasitic nematode control in domestic animals and humans. They have been widely used in livestock, particularly in small ruminants for over 40 years. This has resulted in widespread resistance in small ruminant gastrointestinal nematode parasite species, especially Haemonchus contortus. Benzimidazole resistance mutations have also been reported in Haemonchus placei, but only at low frequencies, suggesting resistance is at a much earlier stage of emergence than is the case for H. contortus. Here, we investigate the haplotype diversity of isotype-1 β-tubulin benzimidazole resistance mutations and the population genetic structure of H. contortus and H. placei populations from sheep and cattle from the southern USA. Microsatellite genotyping revealed a low level of genetic differentiation in six H.placei and seven H. contortus populations examined. This is consistent with several previous studies from other regions, mainly in H. contortus, supporting a model of high gene flow between parasite populations. There was a single F200Y(TAC) haplotype present in all six H. placei populations across Georgia, Florida and Arkansas. In contrast, there were at least two different F200Y(TAC) haplotypes (up to four) and two different F167Y(TAC) haplotypes across the seven H. contortus populations studied. These results provide further evidence to support a model for benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus spp, in which resistance mutations arise from a single, or the small number of locations, in a region during the early phases of emergence, and subsequently spread due to animal movement.