Contribution of Series Elasticity in Human Cyclic Heel-Raise Exercise.

Akinori Nagano, Senshi Fukashiro, Taku Komura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Contribution of series elasticity of the human mm. triceps surae in cyclic heel-raise exercise (similar to hopping but the feet do not leave the floor) was examined via computer modeling and simulation. A two-dimensional skeletal model of the human body was constructed. Uptight posture was maintained throughout the simulation to prevent the model from falling. A mathematical representation of the mm. triceps surae was implemented in the skeletal model. The muscle was activated by the neural activation input signal with a time resolution of 0.050 sec. Cyclic heel-raise exercises of cycle duration ranging from 0.300 sec to 0.900 sec, corresponding to the motion frequency of 200 to 66.7 cycles/min, were generated using an optimization approach. The goal of the numerical optimization was to generate cyclic motions with as much range of motion as possible. As a result, realistic heel-raise motions were generated with the range of motion between 0.0023 m (cycle duration = 0.300 sec) and 0.0
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-352
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Applied Biomechanics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2003


  • EXERCISE, ACHILLES reflex, LOCOMOTION, MOTION, DYNAMICS, PSYCHOLOGY of movement, TENDON reflex, computer, modeling, muscle, simulation, tendon

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