Cosmic evolution of FRI and FRII sources out to z=2.5

J. M. G. H. J. de Jong*, H. J. A. Röttgering, R. Kondapally, B. Mingo, R. J. van Weeren, P. N. Best, L. K. Morabito, M. Magliocchetti, J. B. R. Oonk, A. Villarrubia-Aguilar, F. F. Vecchi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (RLAGN) play an important role in the evolution of galaxies through the effects on their environment. The two major morphological classes are core-bright (FRI) and edge-bright (FRII) sources. With the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) we compare the FRI and FRII evolution down to lower flux densities and with larger samples than before with the aim to examine the cosmic space density evolution for FRIs and FRIIs by analyzing their space density evolution between L_150~10^24.5 W/Hz and L_150~10^28.5 W/Hz and up to z=2.5. We construct radio luminosity functions (RLFs) from FRI and FRII catalogues based on recent data from LOFAR at 150MHz to study the space densities as a function of radio luminosity and redshift. To partly correct for selection biases and completeness, we simulate how sources appear at a range of redshifts. We report a space density enhancement from low to high redshift for FRI and FRII sources brighter than L_150~10^27 W/Hz. This is possibly related to the higher gas availability in the earlier denser universe. The constant FRI/FRII space density ratio evolution as a function of radio luminosity and redshift in our results suggests that the jet-disruption of FRIs might be primarily caused by events occurring on scales within the host galaxy, rather than being driven by changes in the overall large-scale environment. Remaining selection biases in our results also highlight the need to resolve more sources at angular scales below 40 arcsec and therefore strengthens the motivation for the further development and automation of the calibration and imaging pipeline of LOFAR data to produce images at sub-arcsecond resolution.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberA23
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 29 Feb 2024

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • galaxies: active
  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: statistics
  • radio continuum: galaxies


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