The soluble 155 kDa glycoprotein factor H (FH) protects host tissue from damage by the human complement system. It accelerates decay of the alternative-pathway C3 convertase, C3bBb, and is a cofactor for factor I-mediated cleavage of the opsonin C3b. Numerous mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur in the gene encoding FH and the resulting missense mutations and truncation products result in altered functionality that predisposes to the development of the serious renal condition atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). Other polymorphisms are linked to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and macular degeneration. The two C-terminal modules of FH (FH19-20) harbour numerous aHUS-associated mutations that disrupt the ability of factor H to protect host cells from complement-mediated damage. In this work, the crystal structure of an aHUS-associated T1184R variant of FH19-20 at a resolution of 1.52 Å is described. It is shown that this mutation has negligible structural effects but causes a significant change in the electrostatic surface of these two domains. Mechanisms are discussed by which this mutation may alter FH-ligand interactions, particularly with regard to the extension of a region of this molecule within module 20 that has been associated with the binding of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or sialic acid residues.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography|
|Issue number||Pt 7|
|Publication status||Published - 2011|
- factor H
- complement system