The cellular landscape changes dramatically over the course of a 24 h day. The proteome responds directly to daily environmental cycles and is additionally regulated by the circadian clock. To quantify the relative contribution of diurnal versus circadian regulation, we mapped proteome dynamics under light: dark cycles compared with constant light. Using Ostreococcus tauri, a prototypical eukaryotic cell, we achieved 85% coverage, which allowed an unprecedented insight into the identity of proteins that facilitate rhythmic cellular functions. The overlap between diurnally- and circadian-regulated proteins was modest and these proteins exhibited different phases of oscillation between the two conditions. Transcript oscillations were generally poorly predictive of protein oscillations, in which a far lower relative amplitude was observed. We observed coordination between the rhythmic regulation of organelle-encoded proteins with the nuclear-encoded proteins that are targeted to organelles. Rhythmic transmembrane proteins showed a different phase distribution compared with rhythmic soluble proteins, indicating the existence of a circadian regulatory process specific to the biogenesis and/or degradation of membrane proteins. Our observations argue that the cellular spatiotemporal proteome is shaped by a complex interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic regulatory factors through rhythmic regulation at the transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels.