Deep landscape update of dispersed and tandem repeats in the genome model of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus, using a series of de novo investigating tools

S Guizard, B Piegu, P Arensburger, F Guillou, Y Bigot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

The program RepeatMasker and the database Repbase-ISB are part of the most widely used strategy for annotating repeats in animal genomes. They have been used to show that avian genomes have a lower repeat content (8–12 %) than the sequenced genomes of many vertebrate species (30–55 %). However, the efficiency of such a library-based strategies is dependent on the quality and completeness of the sequences in the database that is used. An alternative to these library based methods are methods that identify repeats de novo. These alternative methods have existed for a least a decade and may be more powerful than the library based methods. We have used an annotation strategy involving several complementary de novo tools to determine the repeat content of the model genome galGal4 (1.04 Gbp), including identifying simple sequence repeats (SSRs), tandem repeats and transposable elements (TEs).

Results
We annotated over one Gbp. of the galGal4 genome and showed that it is composed of approximately 19 % SSRs and TEs repeats. Furthermore, we estimate that the actual genome of the red jungle fowl contains about 31–35 % repeats. We find that library-based methods tend to overestimate TE diversity. These results have a major impact on the current understanding of repeats distributions throughout chromosomes in the red jungle fowl.

Conclusions
Our results are a proof of concept of the reliability of using de novo tools to annotate repeats in large animal genomes. They have also revealed issues that will need to be resolved in order to develop gold-standard methodologies for annotating repeats in eukaryote genomes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number659
Number of pages23
JournalBMC Genomics
Volume17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Aug 2016

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Benchmarking
  • Bioinformatics
  • Repeat
  • Satellite DNA
  • Transposable elements

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