Measurements of H2O from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are used to investigate the structure of H2O in the near tropopause region and dehydration mechanisms in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The new MLS data are consistent with convective input of H2O into the bottom of the TTL followed by slow ascent with a maximum relative amplitude in the seasonal cycle occurring near the tropopause nearly in phase with the tropopause temperature seasonal cycle. The relative amplitude of the seasonal cycle shows a minimum at 121 hPa in the upwelling moist phase. These features are reproduced with the “cold-trap” dehydration hypothesis. Seasonal maps show wettest tropical 100 hPa H2O colocated with continental convection.