Abstract / Description of output
BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury (BDI) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a serious iatrogenic surgical complication. BDI most often occurs as a result of misidentification of the anatomy; however, clinical evidence on its precise mechanism and surgeons' perceptions is scarce.
METHODS: Surgeons from Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the U.S., etc. (n = 614) participated in a questionnaire regarding their BDI experience and near-misses; and perceptions on landmarks, intraoperative findings, and surgical techniques. Respondents voted for a Delphi process and graded each item on a five-point scale. The consensus was built when ≥80% of overall responses were 4 or 5.
RESULTS: Response rates for the first- and the second-round Delphi were 60.6% and 74.9%, respectively. Misidentification of local anatomy accounted for 76.2% of BDI. Final consensus was reached on: 1) Effective retraction of the gallbladder, 2) Always obtaining critical view of safety, and 3) Avoiding excessive use of electrocautery/clipping as vital procedures; and 4) Calot's triangle area and 5) Critical view of safety as important landmarks. For 6) Impacted gallstone and 7) Severe fibrosis/scarring in Calot's triangle, bail-out procedures may be indicated.
CONCLUSIONS: A consensus was reached among expert surgeons on relevant landmarks and intraoperative findings and appropriate surgical techniques to avoid BDI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)
- Journal Article