Calcific aortic valve disease is the most common valvular disease and confers significant morbidity and mortality. There are currently no medical therapies that successfully halt or reverse the disease progression, making surgical replacement the only treatment currently available. The majority of patients will receive a bioprosthetic valve, which themselves are prone to degeneration and may also need replaced, adding to the already substantial healthcare burden of aortic stenosis. Echocardiography and computed tomography can identify late-stage manifestations of the disease process affecting native and bioprosthetic aortic valves but cannot detect or quantify early molecular changes. 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography, on the other hand, can non-invasively and sensitively assess disease activity in the valves. The current review outlines the pivotal role this novel molecular imaging technique has played in improving our understanding of native and bioprosthetic aortic valve disease, as well as providing insights into its feasibility as an important future research and clinical tool.