Development and Reliability of the Oxford Meat Frequency Questionnaire

Cristina Stewart, Kerstin Frie, Carmen Piernas, Susan A. Jebb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reliable and valid measurements of meat intake are needed to advance understanding of its health effects and to evaluate interventions to reduce meat consumption. Here, we describe the development and reliability of the Oxford Meat Frequency Questionnaire (MFQ). It asks individuals to report the number of servings of meat and seafood products they consumed in the last 24 h and is administered daily over 7 days. The MFQ combines food portion size data from the UK Food Standards Agency with estimates of meat content in composite dishes from the UK’s National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Adults who self-reported to eat meat (n = 129) completed a 3-week web-based test–retest reliability study assessing the MFQ twice, with a wash-out week in the middle. Two-way random intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) revealed moderate to good agreement on all meat outcomes (total meat ICC = 0.716; minimum–maximum individual components = 0.531–0.680), except for fish and seafood (ICC = 0.257). Participants reported finding the questionnaire easy to use and, on average, completed it in less than 2 min. This new MFQ offers a quick, acceptable, and reliable method to measure changes in an individual’s meat intake in a UK population
Original languageEnglish
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2021


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