A method was developed for the analysis of amino acids within bovine serum albumin (BSA) which had been modified by reaction with different enals. BSA was reacted with the aldehydes and the reaction products were stabilised by reaction with NaBH4. The protein was then hydrolysed with 6N HCl and the hydrolysis products were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The modified amino acids were derivatised with propylchloroformate. High resolution mass spectrometry carried out using an LTQ-Orbitrap instrument which was able to characterise a wide range of adducts. In addition double adducts were observed to be formed with 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and lysine or lysine + histidine. Qualitatively it was possible to consistently observe a pyridinium adduct formed between lysine and pentenal in human plasma from normal subjects. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.