Development of a framework of medical undergraduate teaching activities

Michael T. Ross*, Terese Stenfors-Hayes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


CONTEXT The need for a comprehensive framework of teaching activities in undergraduate medical education was identified by colleagues involved in teacher training at the University of Edinburgh, UK and Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Such a framework could be used to develop training programmes for medical teachers, to help experienced teachers to reflect upon and communicate with others about their practice, and as a focus for further research on medical teaching.

METHODS A provisional framework of medical teaching activities and a model illustrating how these activities are situated within the wider context of learning and teaching were developed iteratively using the literature and pilot studies. The provisional framework and model were then methodically tested using journal analysis, brainstorming sessions and focus group sessions with medical teachers and teacher trainers in both institutions. Data gathered from this research were analysed and used to further develop the framework and model.

RESULTS Many of the provisional teaching activities in the framework were further developed in response to the research data and some new activities were added. Teaching activities seemed to cluster into three domains: 'Facilitating', 'Managing', and 'Learning and Community Building'. Specific tasks were identified relating to planning, administering, resourcing, implementing and evaluating each teaching activity. Participants found the model of learning and teaching helpful and felt it adequately represented the place of teaching activities within the wider context of undergraduate medical education. The framework and model are now being used by the authors in faculty development, undergraduate teaching and further research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)915-922
Number of pages8
JournalMedical Education
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2008


  • teaching, methods
  • education, medical, undergraduate, methods
  • multicentre study [publication type]
  • professional role
  • professional competence
  • focus groups
  • Sweden
  • Scotland
  • questionnaires


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