Development of the item pool for the ‘WHO-ageism scale’: Conceptualisation, item generation, and content validity assessment

Aja Louise Murray, Vania De La Fuente-Nunez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Objectives: Ageism harms individuals’ health and wellbeing and can be costly to societies. Reliable and valid measures that can quantify ageism are critical for achieving accurate data on its global prevalence, determinants, and impacts, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce it. Ageism scales exist; however, none have been demonstrated to validly measure ageism in a manner consistent with consensus definitions of the concept (i.e., as manifested in all of stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination), whilst also quantifying ageism against all groups, from a target and perpetrator perspective, and across diverse country settings. Our objective was to develop an item pool to meet this need.
Methods: We completed the conceptualisation, item generation and content validity assessment phases of a new World Health Organization (WHO) WHO-ageism item pool that aims to measure the multi-dimensional nature of ageism. These phases drew on a review of available evidence, an experts’ workshop, and structured content validity reviews conducted by experts in scale development and ageism drawn from every world region defined by WHO.
Results: Our resulting item pool is designed to provide a multi-dimensional measure of ageism against all ages measured from both a perpetration and experienced perspective and that can produce valid and reliable scores within diverse country contexts and comparable scores across these contexts.
Conclusions: Our item pool is the first major step in providing a global and comprehensive measure of ageism. Future phases of research will refine the item pool and establish the statistical psychometric properties of the final tool.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAge and Ageing
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jun 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • ageism
  • scale development
  • content validity


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