Development of the Scottish Walkability Assessment Tool (SWAT)

Catherine Millington, Catharine Ward Thompson, David Rowe, Peter Aspinall, Claire Fitzsimons, Norah Nelson, Nanette Mutrie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Scottish Walkability Assessment Tool (SWAT) was designed to objectively record aspects of the physical environment believed to be related to walking in urban Scotland. Reliability was assessed by three pairs of trained raters auditing 30 street segments on two occasions. Eighteen items were reliably audited and displayed adequate environmental variability, 25 items proved unreliable, and 69 items lacked adequate environmental variability. The large number of items that lacked environmental variability indicates a relatively uniform environment in terms of characteristics which the literature indicates might be used to differentiate walkability; however the 18 reliable items can potentially be used to differentiate walkability.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)474-481
Number of pages7
JournalHealth & Place
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Physical environment
  • Urban
  • Walking
  • Walkability
  • Audit tool
  • Reliability


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