Development, validation, and application of an acetylcholinesterase-biosensor test for the direct detection of insecticide residues in infant food

Holger Schulze, Ellen Scherbaum, Michelangelo Anastassiades, Sandra Vorlová, Rolf D Schmid, Till T Bachmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A highly sensitive and rapid food-screening test based on disposable screen-printed biosensors was developed, which is suitable for monitoring infant food. The exposure of infants and children to neurotoxic organophosphates and carbamates is of particular concern because of their higher susceptibility to adverse effects. The European Union has, therefore, set a very low limit for pesticides in infant food, which must not contain concentrations exceeding 10 microg/kg for any given pesticide. The maximum residue limit (MRL) has been set to be near the determination threshold that is typically achieved for pesticides with traditional analytical methods. The biosensor method could detect levels lower than 5 microg/kg and thus clearly fulfills the demands of the EU. To substantiate these measurements, recovery rates were determined and amounted on average to 104% in food. Matrix effects were eliminated by the introduction of a special electrode treatment. The test was compared with two traditional pesticide multiresidue analysis methods (GC-MS, LC-MS) using 26 fruit and vegetable samples from local markets and 23 samples of processed infant food from Germany, Spain, Poland and USA. Three infant food samples exceeded the MRL of 10 microg/kg when analyzed by either biosensor test or multiresidue methods.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1095-1105
Number of pages11
JournalBiosensors & Bioelectronics
Volume17
Issue number11-12
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Keywords

  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Biosensing Techniques
  • Carbamates
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors
  • Electrochemistry
  • Enzymes, Immobilized
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Female
  • Food Contamination
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Food
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Insecticides
  • Male
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Pesticide Residues
  • Quality Control
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity

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