Different trends of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Madrid, Spain, among risk groups in the last decade

Gonzalo Yebra, Rafael Delgado, Federico Pulido, Rafael Rubio, Juan Carlos Galán, Santiago Moreno, África Holguín

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The presence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) threatens the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment. We aimed to assess the changes in TDR prevalence over the last decade in Madrid, Spain, to verify the role of the patients' risk groups in these changes. We analysed the trends of TDR between 2000 and 2011 in a cohort of 1,022 naïve HIV-infected patients in Madrid, Spain, whose pol sequences were available. They included, among others, 369 heterosexuals, 340 men who have sex with men (MSM), and 90 injection drug users (IDUs). TDR was reported following the WHO mutation list. The TDR rate in the whole cohort was 8.3 %, being the highest in MSM (9.1 %) and the lowest in IDUs (4.4 %). Over time, this rate decreased significantly (to 5.4 % in 2009-2011) since the period 2004-2006, when it peaked (10.7 %). Heterosexuals and IDUs showed similar trends, but in the 2009-2011 period, the TDR rate among MSM rebounded to 9.0 % (being absent among IDUs). TDR stabilized in the last years (2007-2011) for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The risk group also determined differences in the mutational profile, sex distribution, proportion of immigrants, and viral variants. In conclusion, the risk group caused different HIV sub-epidemics, determined by the patients' profiles. Despite the general decreasing trend in TDR, we observed a non-significant increase in TDR rate among MSM, a tendency that needs confirmation. Periodic TDR surveillance is important to prevent the widespread distribution of resistance, especially in MSM, given the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in this high-risk population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1079-87
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Virology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 3 Dec 2013


  • adult
  • antiviral agents
  • drug resistance
  • Female
  • HIV infections
  • HIV-1
  • humans
  • male
  • mutation
  • risk factors
  • Spain


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