While cancer-associated stroma (CAS) in malignant tumours is well described, stromal changes in benign forms of naturally occurring tumours remain poorly characterized. Spontaneous canine mammary carcinomas (mCA) are viewed as excellent models of human mCA. We have recently reported highly conserved stromal reprogramming between canine and human mCA based on transcriptome analysis of laser-capture-microdissected FFPE specimen. To identify stromal changes between benign and malignant mammary tumours, we have analysed matched normal and adenoma-associated stroma (AAS) from 13 canine mammary adenomas and compared them to previous data from 15 canine mCA. Our analyses reveal distinct stromal reprogramming even in small benign tumours. While similarities between AAS and CAS exist, the stromal signature clearly distinguished adenomas from mCA. The distinction between AAS and CAS is further substantiated by differential enrichment in several hallmark signalling pathways as well as differential abundance in cellular composition. Finally, we identify COL11A1, VIT, CD74, HLA-DRA, STRA6, IGFBP4, PIGR, and TNIP1 as strongly discriminatory stromal genes between adenoma and mCA, and demonstrate their prognostic value for human breast cancer. Given the relevance of canine CAS as a model for the human disease, our approach identifies disease-modulating stromal components with implications for both human and canine breast cancer.