Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into anterior definitive endoderm

Alessandra Livigni, Santiago Nahuel Villegas, Ifigenia Oikonomopoulou, Afifah Rahman, Gillian M Morrison, Joshua M Brickman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE) is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other visceral organs. Here we describe a method for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (aggregation or embryoid body) culture and in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. Purified ES cell-derived ADE cells appear committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards liver and pancreas with enhanced efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1G.3.1-1G.3.10
JournalCurrent protocols in stem cell biology
Issue number1
Early online date15 Jul 2009
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2009


  • embryonic stem cells
  • differentiation
  • endoderm
  • anterior
  • activin
  • FGF
  • Hex

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