Direct Observation of Melting in Shock-Compressed Bismuth With Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction

M. G. Gorman*, R. Briggs, E. E. McBride, A. Higginbotham, B. Arnold, J. H. Eggert, D. E. Fratanduono, E. Galtier, A. E. Lazicki, H. J. Lee, H. P. Liermann, B. Nagler, A. Rothkirch, R. F. Smith, D. C. Swift, G. W. Collins, J. S. Wark, M. I. McMahon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The melting of bismuth in response to shock compression has been studied using in situ femtosecond x-ray diffraction at an x-ray free electron laser. Both solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions are documented using changes in discrete diffraction peaks and the emergence of broad, liquid scattering upon release from shock pressures up to 14 GPa. The transformation from the solid state to the liquid is found to occur in less than 3 ns, very much faster than previously believed. These results are the first quantitative measurements of a liquid material obtained on shock release using x-ray diffraction, and provide an upper limit for the time scale of melting of bismuth under shock loading.

Original languageEnglish
Article number095701
Number of pages5
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Volume115
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Aug 2015

Keywords

  • HIGH-PRESSURE
  • PHASE-TRANSITION
  • MAGNESIUM-OXIDE
  • LIQUID BISMUTH
  • OMEGA LASER
  • TEMPERATURE
  • EQUATION
  • CRYSTAL
  • MATTER
  • STATE

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