Direct stimulation of adenylyl cyclase 9 by the fungicide imidazole miconazole

James Simpson, Adrienn Palvolgyi, Ferenc Antoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In mammals, nine genes encode trans-membrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC) isoforms that synthesize the intracellular messenger compound cAMP from ATP. As cAMP is produced in virtually all types of cell, isoform-selective modulators of tmAC would have major research and therapeutic potential. This study investigated the effects of fungicide imidazoles previously shown to suppress cAMP production in various tissues on the activities of tmAC isoforms AC1, 2, or 9 stably expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Intact cells, as well as crude membranes, were exposed to various imidazoles or known stimulators of tmAC and the ensuing changes in the production of cAMP analyzed. In crude membranes, the activity of AC9 in the presence of GDP-β-S was enhanced by miconazole with an EC50 of ~ 8 μM, while AC1 and AC2 were inhibited with an IC50 of ~ 20 μM. Clotrimazole (10–100 μM) was an inhibitor of all the ACs tested. Substrate saturation analysis indicated that miconazole increased the Vmax of AC9 by 3-fold while having no effect on the Km. In intact cells, the effect of miconazole on cAMP production through AC9 was additive with that of isoproterenol. The stimulation of cAMP production by miconazole was inhibited by Ca2+, and this could be prevented by the calcineurin blocker FK506. In sum, activation of AC9 by miconazole is through a mechanism distinct from that of forskolin, activated G proteins, or the COOH-terminal mediated autoinhibition. However, it is subject to the AC9 isoform-specific inhibition by Ca2+/calcineurin. Differential modulation of mammalian tmAC paralogs appears to be achievable by an imidazole with phenylated side chains. Optimization of the lead compound and exploration of the underlying mechanism(s) of action in more detail could exploit this further.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)497–504
JournalNaunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Issue number4
Early online date3 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019


Dive into the research topics of 'Direct stimulation of adenylyl cyclase 9 by the fungicide imidazole miconazole'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this