Discourse markers in speech: Characteristics and challenges for corpus annotation

Ludivine Crible, Maria Josep Cuenca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


It is generally acknowledged that discourse markers are used differently in speech and writing, yet many general descriptions and most annotation frameworks are written-based, thus partially unfit to be applied in spoken corpora. This paper identifies the major characteristics of discourse markers in spoken language, which can be associated with problems related to their scope and structure, their meaning and their tendency to co-occur. The description is based on authentic examples and is followed by methodological recommendations on how to deal with these phenomena in more exhaustive, speech-friendly annotation models.
Original languageEnglish
JournalDialogue and Discourse
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2017


  • discourse markers
  • corpus annotation
  • speech
  • inguistic complexity
  • mode of communication


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