Abstract / Description of output
We aimed to characterize the availability and promotion of alcohol at alcohol outlets in Madrid and to compare them according to type of outlet and area-level socioeconomic status. We used the OHCITIES instrument to characterise the alcohol outlets in 42 census tracts of Madrid in 2016. We specified alcohol availability as the density of alcohol outlets and the number of alcohol outlets with extended opening hours (12 or more). We registered any type of promotion associated to alcohol outlets that could be perceived from outside the outlet. We calculated and compared proportions of availability and promotion by alcohol outlet (on- and off-premise) using chi-squared and Fisher Exact tests. We estimated the availability and promotion of alcohol densities per census tract according to area-level socioeconomic status. To assess statistical significance, we used Kruskal-Wallis tests. We recorded 324 alcohol outlets, 241 on-premise and 83 off-premise. Most of the outlets had extended opening hours (73.77%) and at least one sign promoting alcohol (89.51%). More on-premise outlets had extended opening hours and higher presence of alcohol promotion than off-premise (p < 0.001). Higher density of alcohol outlets, extended opening hours and presence of alcohol promotion were found in higher socioeconomic areas (all p < 0.001). These results were also observed for on-premise alcohol outlets. Alcohol availability and promotion were associated with alcohol outlets in Madrid. Future alcohol policies regulating the availability and promotion of alcohol should consider outlet types and area-level socioeconomic status.