The detection of trace levels of paraoxon and carbofuran was achieved utilizing differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) on gold disposable electrochemical printed (DEP) chips. The nanostructured gold surface of the chips enables highly sensitive oxidation of the thiocholine (TCh) product even in the absence of costly surface modifications. The inhibition of AChE activity at varying insecticide concentrations was detected with low detection limits of 10 ppb (36 nM) for paraoxon and 8 ppb (18 nM) for carbofuran. Fine-tuning of the experimental conditions will allow for the application of unmodified DEP gold chips for inexpensive on-field detection of AChE inhibition by various insecticides at or below the allowable concentrations set by European and North American regulation standards.
- Cholinesterase Inhibitors
- Limit of Detection