Distinct gene expression patterns in skeletal and cardiac muscle are dependent on common regulatory sequences in the MLC1/3 locus

M J McGrew, N Bogdanova, K Hasegawa, S H Hughes, R N Kitsis, N Rosenthal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

The myosin light-chain 1/3 locus (MLC1/3) is regulated by two promoters and a downstream enhancer element which produce two protein isoforms in fast skeletal muscle at distinct stages of mouse embryogenesis. We have analyzed the expression of transcripts from the internal MLC3 promoter and determined that it is also expressed in the atria of the heart. Expression from the MLC3 promoter in these striated muscle lineages is differentially regulated during development. In transgenic mice, the MLC3 promoter is responsible for cardiac-specific reporter gene expression while the downstream enhancer augments expression in skeletal muscle. Examination of the methylation status of endogenous and transgenic promoter and enhancer elements indicates that the internal promoter is not regulated in a manner similar to that of the MLC1 promoter or the downstream enhancer. A GATA protein consensus sequence in the proximal MLC3 promoter but not the MLC1 promoter binds with high affinity to GATA-4, a cardiac muscle- and gut-specific transcription factor. Mutation of either the MEF2 or GATA motifs in the MLC3 promoter attenuates its activity in both heart and skeletal muscles, demonstrating that MLC3 expression in these two diverse muscle types is dependent on common regulatory elements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4524-34
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular and Cellular Biology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1996

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • GATA4 Transcription Factor
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Heart
  • Methylation
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Muscle, Skeletal
  • Myosin Light Chains
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Transcription Factors


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