Distribution of phosphorylated Smad2 identifies target tissues of TGF beta ligands in mouse development

Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Rita L C Carvalho, Sander van den Driesche, Marie José Goumans, Peter ten Dijke, Christine L Mummery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) and related family members control the development of tissues by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. They transmit signals to the nucleus via phosphorylation of Smad proteins. Here, we used an antibody specifically recognising phosphorylated Smad2 (PSmad2) to identify tissues that have received signals of TGF beta family members acting via Smad2, e.g. TGF betas, activins and nodal. At embryonic day (E)5.5-E8.5, punctuated nuclear PSmad2 staining was scattered throughout the embryo. At E10.5-E12.5, specific zones of the neural tube and brain, ganglia, premuscle masses and precartilage primordia exhibited pronounced nuclear staining, while tissues undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions showed prominent cytoplasmic staining. Interestingly, in the endocardium and most endothelial cells PSmad2 is not detected at E10.5-E12.5, although at E8.5 these cells were stained. These data document the cells that may have received a TGF beta-like stimulus and illustrate, for the first time, the dynamic regulation in space and time of phosphorylated Smad2 during mouse development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-60
Number of pages6
JournalGene Expression Patterns
Volume3
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2003

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Cell Nucleus
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Ectoderm
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Ligands
  • Mesoderm
  • Mice
  • Organ Specificity
  • Phosphorylation
  • Smad2 Protein
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta

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