Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths

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The vertebrate immune system has evolved in concert with a broad range of infectious agents, including ubiquitous helminth (worm) parasites. The constant pressure of helminth infections has been a powerful force in shaping not only how immunity is initiated and maintained, but also how the body self-regulates and controls untoward immune responses to minimize overall harm. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in defining the immune cell types and molecules that are mobilized in response to helminth infection. Finally, we more broadly consider how these immunological players are blended and regulated in order to accommodate persistent infection or to mount a vigorous protective response and achieve sterile immunity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-388
Number of pages14
JournalNature Reviews Immunology
Issue number6
Early online date25 May 2011
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2011


  • Animals
  • Antigenic Variation
  • Cytokines
  • Genetic Variation
  • Helminthiasis
  • Helminths
  • Host-Parasite Interactions
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Models, Immunological
  • Th2 Cells
  • infection
  • Parasite host response
  • Parasitic infection


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